What are the ports in South America? World route introduction 5
The South American West route mainly refers to the national port route on the west coast of South America. South America is located in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and Antarctica to the south across the Drake Passage. It is generally separated from North America by the Panama Canal. It extends from Cape Brancourt in the east (34°46 'W, 7°09' s), Cape Froward in the south (71°18 'W, 53°54' s), Cape Parinias in the west (81°20 'W, 4°41' s), and Cape Gainas in the north (71°40 'W, 12°28' N).
The main ports of the South American West route are:
BUENAVENTURA (Buenaventura), CALLAO (Callao), GUAYAQUIL (Guayaquil), IQUIQUE (Iquique), VAL PARAISO (Valparaiso), SAN ANTONIO.
The main shipping companies in the West of South America are: EMC, HPL (low freight), CSAV, CSCL, APL, MSC (medium freight, fast speed), Hamburd-SUD, MAERSK, NYK (high freight, fastest speed).
Buenaventura is the largest port in Colombia, a Pacific coast trading port. Buenaventura is located on Cascajar Island in the Gulf of Buenaventura in the western part of the country and is connected to the mainland by a seawall. The sea route is 352 nautical miles north of the south mouth of the Panama River, Balboa Port, and 578 nautical miles south of Guayaquil Port. The port has about 10 berths, the total length of the main dock is 2216 meters, the water depth of the front low tide is 9.45 meters, and it can dock 8 10,000-ton sea vessels. In the early 1990s, the main terminal was built by the China Harbor Company and underwent a comprehensive renovation with an investment of 7 million US dollars. The port has good protective equipment, and has a large area of ship turning waters and anchorage, the depth of the anchorage is 10.01-21.64 meters, and the seabed mud is conducive to anchoring. The outer shoal does not affect the entry of vessels with a draft of 9.14m at high tide. Dock loading and unloading equipment is good, and there are nine warehouses, a total storage capacity of 70,000 cubic meters, fuel oil, fresh water supply. Export coffee sugar, cotton, gold, etc.
Peruvian commercial port on the west coast of South America. Located in the middle of the country's coast, on the outskirts of Lima. The sea road is 1350 nautical miles from Balboa Port in the north, 3990 nautical miles from San Francisco Port, 1306 nautical miles from the Chilean commercial port of Valparaiso Port in the south, to the port of Shanghai 9404 nautical miles, the port is in the northwest coast of Callaao City, there are two north and south breakwaters together. The outer harbour is protected by the island of St. Laurent to the southwest, while the central and southern harbour has a large jetty extending northwest from the land shore and four smaller jetties extending west. There is one berth on each side of the big jetty, the water depth is 9.7-10.9 meters; There are four berths in the south of the small embankment with water depths of 10-10.9 meters. In addition, there are four berths on both sides of the jetty extending from the south breakwater to the northeast, with water depths of 9.1-10.6 meters; There are also two tanker berths in the northwest breakwater, with a water depth of 10.9 meters. With a total of 23 berths, it is the most modern port on both sides of South America, and 3/4 of Peru's imports and 1/4 of its exports pass through this port, with an annual throughput of about 5 million tons.
Guayaquil city is Ecuador's largest city, the main port along the Pacific coast, located in the southwestern part of the country, Guayas River right bank, known as the "Pacific coastal pearl". Legend has it that it was first inhabited by a hard-working Indian couple, the woman named Guaya and the man named Keel. In order to commemorate them, later generations named the city "Guayaquil". The port of Guayaquil is the largest seaport in Ecuador. It faces the Pacific Ocean and backs the Santa Ana Mountains. The nearby island of Puna serves as a natural barrier to protect the harbour from storms. There is a pier to the south, more than 900 meters long. Ships with various flags from different parts of the world are anchored in the harbor. The port railway leads to the capital, Quito, and motorways connect Quito to other cities in the country. Bananas, cocoa, coffee, cotton and other products from all over the country are distributed here.
Iquique, located in the northwest of the Atacama Desert, is a port city on the Pacific coast of northern Chile, and is the capital of Chile's Talapaca region and Iquique Province, about 1,800 kilometers north of the Chilean capital Santiago. The name "Iquique" is derived from an indigenous language called "Aymara", the original language is "Iki Iki", meaning "lugar de suenos" (dream place) and "lugar de descanso" (resting place), Today, most people know Iquique as "Tierra de Campeones", which means "land of champions". Today, it is said that a quarter of the Chileans in the area also have Chinese ancestry.
In 1975, Iquique established the largest trade free port in South America (Zona Franca de Iquique, abbreviated as Zofri), Zofri consists of 30,000 square meters of retail shopping malls and more than 200 hectares of trade service area. It has attracted many intelligent Chinese to settle here and set up companies to do import and export trade. All kinds of Asian goods arrived in Iquique and were sold overland to neighboring countries such as Peru, Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia (smuggling still exists), and today Iquique has become the most important port of import for trade in South American countries, and thus has the largest concentration of Chinese in Chile (due to its small size, the city of Chile). So the chances of encountering Chinese on the streets of Iquique are much greater than in the capital, Santiago). The picture shows Modulo, a newly built duty-free shopping mall near Zofri Free Port.
Adopt Zone 4.5 West standard time. The maximum draft is 9.14 meters, and the load density of water is 1025. The spring tide has a tidal range of 0.97 m. The average tidal range is 0.79 m, with prevailing southwest winds.
Mandatory pilotage in and out of port or mooring at the oil terminal station, the navigator meets the ship 24 hours a day at 0.55 km outside the breakwater terminal, where the water depth is up to 24.38 meters and there is a good anchor grip.
Tug boats must be used for mooring and mooring.
Communication methods, port holidays working hours: 3 shifts every day, 08:00-15:30, 15:30-23:00, 23:00-06:30.
Port services include: ship repair, refueling, boat, medical, traction, fresh water, supplies and repatriation, no dry dock and sewage. The port has consuls from Bolivia, Colombia, Italy, Norway, Panama, Peru, Spain, Sweden and Yugoslavia.
Iquique is an artificial harbor, with a breakwater connecting the island and the mainland, 846 meters long, with three berths in the breakwater and four berths in the breakwater.
To the west of the breakwater are berths 4 and 5, 270 meters, 9.75 meters deep at the front, and two small warehouses are built at the north end for storing bulk cargo. Tugs are laid on all berths. There is no crane on the berth, and the cargo is unloaded onto the berth by the derrick on the ship.
Elevated conveyor belts on berths 6 and 7 are used to transport nitrates, both for bulk and packaged cargoes. There are 3 tower silos, but only 2 of them work at the same time, and the third tower silo has a longer conveyor belt for berth 6. Nitrate shipments have dropped significantly to less than 10,000 tons per month.
The fish oil loading equipment is located underground in berths 5 and 6 and can transport 100 tons per hour.
Iquique has been importing semi-refined vegetable oil for use in whale processing plants. Berth 4 is equipped with a 100 mm diameter oil pipe, which is unloaded from the ship's oil pump, and a 900 ton capacity oil storage tank is mounted daily. There is a private freezer in the port, which can store 2,500 tons of deep-frozen fish. The loading rate of the cold fish was 7-8 tons per hour per handling group, and the dedicated loading area of the explosive ship indicated in the chart is no longer used because there are no barges there. Only in exceptional cases of emergency, with the consent of the port authorities, can these cargoes be unloaded on the berth and must be transferred immediately.
To the northeast of the port is the oil terminal, with two subsea pipelines leading to Shell oil tanks (36,000 cubic meters). One tubing is 254 mm in diameter and 450 m long, and the other tubing is 203 mm in diameter and 570 m long, due to the discharge of light oil and fuel oil. Tanker berths can only berth one tanker at a time, and the vessels cannot be very close to each other. In the season of big fish, there are quite a number of trawlers entering and leaving Iquique Port, and the traffic in the port waters is busy day and night.
The port can be filled with fuel oil, limited supply by tanker trucks. Fresh water is in short supply and is usually only available between April and December each year. The water pipe on the berth can supply 7 tons of fresh water per hour during the day and 10 tons at night. Other supplies are low. Some naval supplies. All water repairs can be carried out.
Diesel powerboats under 500 horsepower can be repaired at tug yards.
VAL PARAISO (Valparaiso)
Chilean commercial port on the West Sea of South America. It is located in the middle of the country's coast, south of Valparaiso Bay, north of the port city. The sea route reaches 2,616 nautical miles north to Balboa Port, 1,306 nautical miles to Callao Port, 576 nautical miles to Antonfagasta Port, and 1,432 nautical miles south to Punta Arenas Port in the Strait of Magellan. In the small bay open to the northwest, there is a breakwater in the northwest that extends from the land shore to the southeast, and a small jetty in the southeast that extends to the north, with three deep-water berths on it, five deep-water berths along the shore between the jetty and the breakwater, and two berths on the coal jetty to the east. In total, there are 10 deep-water berths in Hong Kong, all of which are between 9 and 10.5 meters deep, of which 4 berths are used for container loading and unloading. More than half of Chile's foreign trade imports go through this.
Ports in Chile. The time zone is 4.5 hours west. The maximum draft is 9.75 meters. Spring tide range 1.22 m. The prevailing southwest wind. Ships can only enter the port during the day and leave without restriction. In case of bad weather or strong winds, the navigator can not reach the port, the length of more than 100 meters of ships, can go to the inner channel to lead. Larger ships should leave port until the weather returns to normal. The harbor pool is small, and when the captain exceeds 130 meters, there is no room for turning. The outer channel is deep, it is not suitable for anchoring, so it must enter the port during the day and leave at night. The best time to enter the port is before the strong south wind in the morning, and the flow rate along the northeast coast is 1.0-1.5 meters per second. The port area includes: ship repair, fuel supply, motor boats, tugs, medical and repatriation services, and food supplies. Italy and Spain have consuls in Hong Kong.
Port area from the south levee (levee length of 200 meters, turn 293 degrees. Transfer 800 meters, strike 343 degrees) and the north guide embankment (embankment length 100 meters, turn 200 degrees), inlet width 400 meters. Bulk and general cargo berth: Berth A(No. 1) is equipped with a coal grab, which is mainly used for grain cargo lifting with a capacity of 5,000 tons per day. Berth A/B(No. 2) : Allowed length 180 m, draft 8.53 m, 9.75 m after dredging. There are double track carts and 7 cranes, of which 4 are 7.5 tons each and 3 are 4.5 tons each. Berth B/C mainly carries copper ingots for export. Efficacy: 70 tons per hour; Packing 1.15 million bags of copper per hour. Behind berth C(No. 3) is a chemical or vegetable oil storage tank with a capacity of 6,600 cubic meters and two pipelines with a capacity of 100 tons per hour each. Between the fishing embankment and the cold storage is a 250 ton liquid tank.
Two fishing dikes and a frozen fish reservoir at the south end of the harbor pond, with a volume of 900 cubic meters. 300 meters to the east of berth 1 and 2 is the embankment, 375 meters to the southwest and west side of the embankment, the water depth of 9.76 meters, can berth two 180 meters long fishing boats. (Berths 4 and 5) There are three small chemical storage tanks at the head of the embankment, with volumes of 220, 220 and 360 tons respectively. East berth two reliable vessels. Among them, No. 6 berth allows a length of 175 meters and a draft of 9.15 meters, and No. 7 berth has a length of 95 meters and a draft of 5.49 meters. It has six 5-ton electric cranes and a general warehouse with a storage capacity of 12,600 cubic meters. Berth 6 has two pipes with diameters of 12 inches and 4 inches. There's a line of tanks on the north shore of the port area. Two liquid storage tanks, each with a volume of 9000 cubic meters; 2 chemical tanks, each with a volume of 500 cubic meters; 1 styrene tank, volume 1200 cubic meters.